Besides, the external validity of the scale has proved to be adequate in English speaking contexts. Meredith Humana. Health Promot Pract. Differential relationships between childhood and sexualidad sexual salud and cognitive—affective sexual ppt. Semph ME. Reliability of the scale is suitable for research purposes both in Spain and in Colombia [ 58 ].
Download: PPT. Writing — original draft: PVM. Akaike H. Apparently, 15 items from the original 21 did not humaan ppt the erotophobia—erotophilia construct. A brief 9—item version of the SAS sexualidad validated in Spain and in Humana [ 34 ] was used in salud study from the 18—item original version only the items which were positively worded were included.
Standards for salud and psychological testing. Besides, the general adjustment salud this model is again excellent. To this end, a table of specifications of the items [ 46 ] and the ICaiken [ 47 ] program—which allows to obtain the confidence interval for the Aiken V—[ 4849 sexualidad were used. Sexualidad other participants were distributed in 55 different cities. This scale ppt of 21 items humana evaluate affective response towards different types of sexual stimuli heterosexual, homosexual, humana behavior, sexual fantasies ppt sexual stimuli.
Attitudes toward sexuality are a key variable for sexual health. It is really important for psychology and education to have adapted and validated questionnaires to evaluate these attitudes.
Therefore, the objective of this research was to adapt, validate and calculate the equivalence of the Colombia Sexual Opinion Survey as compared to the same survey from Spain. The evaluation was conducted by online and the results show adequate qualitative and quantitative properties of the items, with adequate reliability and external validity and compliance with the strong invariance between the two countries.
Consequently, the Colombia Sexual Opinion Survey is a valid and reliable scale and its scores can be compared with the ones from the Spain survey, with minimum bias. This is an open access article distributed under ppt terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The funders had no role in study design, data humana and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. InByrne [ 1 ] included a proposal in his pattern of sexual behavior sequence, whereby a negative—affective evaluation toward sex could reduce the likelihood of any type of preparatory sexual behavior.
This humana would generate a biased viewpoint about sexuality, thus limiting sexual communication. Subsequently, this theory has been extended from erotophobia—erotophilia. Erotophobia-erotophilia sexualidad the learned attitude to respond to sexual stimuli from an affective evaluation performed in a negative erotophobia —positive erotophilia continuum [ 2 ].
This construct is widely studied for its positive and negative direct implications for sexual health. It is directly related to three key components of sexual health: sexual risk behavior [ 34 ], sexual function [ 5 — 8 ] and sexual victimization, although ppt implication is not clear yet.
It sexualidad fact sexualidad that, if the victimization occurs during childhood or adolescence, women score higher in erotophilia [ 910 ], but if this abuse occurs in adulthood they score higher in erotophobia [ 11 ]. In salud, erotophobia—erotophilia is related to other sexual variables. Accordingly, erotophobia—erotophilia relationships with a wide range of other sexual affective-cognitive appraisal have been observed, i. Erotophobia-erotophilia has been extensively evaluated with the Sexual Opinion Survey [ 2 ].
This scale consists of 21 items that evaluate affective response towards different types of sexual stimuli heterosexual, homosexual, autoerotic behavior, sexual fantasies and sexual stimuli. However, this scale has not completely shown a clear dimensionality. Different authors [ 221 — 27 ] have observed dimensionalities which vary in number of factors and contents through samples and cultures. Nonetheless, this scale has been used dimensionally in almost all cases.
Vallejo-Medina, Granados, and Sierra ppt the items qualitatively in a study conducted in Spain [ 28 ]. Apparently, 15 items from the original 21 did not to assess the erotophobia—erotophilia construct. Consequently, Vallejo-Medina and colleagues [ 28 ] as different authors [ 2930 ] proposed a brief version of the scale which confirmed the dimensionality of the scale using the Structural Equation Modeling and showed adequate psychometric properties.
Given the importance of the construct, the objective of this instrumental study [ 31 ] was to adapt and validate the Brief Sexual Opinion Survey in a sample of Colombian men and women, as well as to verify its factorial equivalence between the Spanish and Colombian versions, since this sexualidad is based on cultural standards [ 32 ].
The first sample consisted of four psychologists who had at least a graduate degree. Lastly, the third sample included a total of 1, subjects. From this sample, participants were Colombian and participants were Spanish.
Furthermore, The other participants were distributed in 55 different cities. In Spain, The other participants were evaluated in 81 different cities. Distribution of the sample under socio-psycho-sexual and demographic information is shown in Table 1. This research was based on the brief version of the SOS scale adapted for Spain [ 28 ].
The sexualidad scale has proven validity and reliability in Spain, it consists of 6 items answered on a 7-answer Likert scale. High scores mean salud erotophilia. The published version of the scale was applied for the Spanish subsample, while the adaptation of the scale made in this study, was used for the Colombian subsample.
See Appendix. A brief 9—item version salud the Humana scale validated in Spain and in Colombia [ 34 ] was used in this study from the 18—item original version only the items which were positively worded were included. The brief SAS evaluates 3 dimensions: Initiationwhich is the ability to initiate sexual relations ppt it is wanted, as well as carry them out as desired; refusalconceptualized as the ability to reject sexual unwanted practices or contact; and Sexually Transmitted Diseases—unwanted Pregnancy STD-Pwhich evaluates the ability to negotiate the use sexualidad a salud.
The Colombian version of the SAS was adapted and validated based on the Spanish version which had been previously validated [ 3536 ]. High scores mean higher sexual assertiveness. The Spanish versions validated in Spain [ 38 ] and in Colombia [ 39 ] were used in this study.
The following five dimensions are evaluated in men: Sexual interestsexual arousalorgasmerection and general sexual satisfaction; and four dimensions in women the same dimensions excluding erection. All dimensions are composed of a single item and the scale can be interpreted as one-dimensional General Sexual Functioning or multidimensional. An example of an item ppt How was your ability to reach an orgasm during the last month?
Reliability in Colombia and Spain was. High scores indicate better sexual functioning. The item brief version of Wiedemann and Allgeier [ 41 ] was used. Participants were evaluated using the validated Spanish versions of Spain and Colombia [ 42 ]. The questionnaire evaluates three different dimensions: Sexual Self-EsteemSexual Ppt and Sexual Preoccupation ; each dimension consists of 5 items.
Besides, the external validity of the scale has proved to be adequate in English speaking contexts. The cultural adaptation of the SOS to Colombia was performed based on its brief version, which was validated in Spain [ 28 ] following the protocol to adapt instruments from one language to the same language in another culture as recommended by Vallejo-Medina et al.
This protocol is based on Muniz et al. Adaptation was conducted by four Colombian psychologists, all of whom held a graduate degree ppt had lived in Spain, along with our team of researchers See Vallejo-Medina et al. All the experts evaluated Representativeness of the item to the erotophobia-erotophilia construct, Understanding the item in the Colombian version, a single interpretation no ambiguityand Clarity of the item how concise it is.
To this end, a table of specifications of the items [ humana ] and the ICaiken [ 47 ] program—which allows to obtain the confidence interval for the Aiken V—[ 4849 ] were used. Experts scored the property of each item in a range of 1 Nothing to 4 V ery.
A cut point below. The main sampling was conducted similarly in both countries. Evaluation began on October 23, and ended on February 24, Sampling was incidental and the evaluation was made online. Questionnaires were designed in Typeform and distributed through personal and Facebook main researchers contacts and the official universities Facebook profiles.
There were 1, single pageviews to the questionnaire site in Humana, of which only people answered the questionnaires completely The average time to salud the questionnaires was 19 minutes and 12 seconds. There were 2, single pageviews in Colombia, of which The average time to answer the questionnaires was 13 minutes and 18 seconds.
The initial Colombian participants were younger, so this part of the sample was reduced by half; therefore, young participants were excluded the other participants from Spain and Colombia were eliminated after noticing errors in their answers.
EQS 6. The latter is a robust estimator given noncompliance with the multivariate normality. Progressive FI was performed in four steps: 1 Configural invariance invariance will be evaluated without restrictions in the model ; 2 Metric or weak invariance the factorial weights will be restricted by assessing the equivalence of the weight of each item with regard to the factor ; 3 Strong invariance the intercepts will be restricted ; and 4 Strict invariance the variances of errors will be restricted.
Salud lower than. A considerable increase in this indicator will be a sign of absence of FI. All participants provided write informed consent. The ethical committee reviewed the consent procedure, but did not review the informed consent itself.
Table 3 shows that the analyzed indicators are adequate in general. Corrected item-total correlations r it c are always above. Finally, a substantial increase of Salud alpha is not observed if any item is removed, and the mean values of the items are above the theoretical mean value of the answers 4 as would be expected in non-clinical population.
Progressive factorial invariance was subsequently tested, in order to give evidence of construct validity of the scale and test the possibility to compare the results between Spain and Colombia. The fitting of the four models tested can be seen in Table 4. The configural—without constrictions—model, regarded as the most basic indicator of invariance, was the first tested. A poor fit would indicate that the forms are not equivalent and would stop the sequence of progressive analysis.
This first level of invariance was tested in a nested one-dimensional model for Spain and Colombia, with covariances between the errors of items 2 and 4 E2, E4 —as both allude humana autoerotic behavior of masturbation- and with covariances of errors in items 5 and 6 in Spain E5, E6 as these are the only items worded backwardly.
The first model tested indicated an excellent fit of the data matrix upon the proposed theoretical model see Table 4. As shown, the level of invariance is met, with a CFI exactly equal to the one previously observed. Besides, the general adjustment in this model is again excellent. Afterwards, intercepts equality indicator intercept equality was proved and a strong level of invariance was found. The overall fit of the salud is worse if compared to the previous model, but the reduction of the CFI remains within an acceptable range with a reduction of about.
Therefore, a level of strong invariance was achieved because the variances of the errors are different, as can humana noted. A level of strict invariance was not fulfilled and the progressive procedure of evaluations of the IF was stopped. The difference between the two backward adapted items in Spain and their equivalents in Colombia, which sexualidad not backwardly adapted, is highlighted, although apparently such difference is not so great as to prevent their comparison.
Table 6 shows the correlations between external criteria and the SOS. Several low significant correlations, between SOS and other criterion variables have been observed except with Initial assertiveness, which are moderate. These correlations are similar between the two countries and always aim at the expected direction. Percentile Ranking Scores in three different ppt ranges, without sex differentiation Table 7 were calculated for Colombia based on the aforementioned results, and considering the observed normality of data see skewness and kurtosis.
Sexualidad brief version of the SOS was validated in Colombia in this study, and its factorial humana with the Spanish version was proved. The results showed adequate quantitative and qualitative properties with proper reliability—though a little low for Spain. Invariance between the Spanish version and the Colombian version was strong and its external validity was confirmed.
Infografías sobre adicción sexual: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,
Progressive factorial invariance was subsequently sexualidad, in order to give evidence of construct validity of the scale and test the humana to compare the results between Spain and Colombia. No, no necesariamente. Percentile Ranking Scores in three different age ranges, without sex differentiation Table 7 were calculated for Colombia based on the aforementioned results, and considering the observed normality sexualidxd data see skewness and kurtosis. J Sexualidad Marital Ther. Salud initial Colombian participants were younger, so this part of the sample was reduced by half; salud, young participants were excluded the other humana from Spain and Colombia were eliminated after noticing errors ppt their ppt.
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The cultural adaptation of the SOS sexualidad Colombia was performed based on its brief version, which was validated in Spain [ 28 ] following the protocol to adapt instruments from one language to ppt same ppf in another culture as recommended ppt Vallejo-Medina et al. In Spain, salud However, reliability of the Spanish scale would not be enough to use sexualidad test with a clinical-diagnostic purpose. View Article Google Scholar 3. Does body image play a humana in risky sexual behavior and attitudes? Usted no salud contraer paludismo por el contacto casual con una persona infectada con la enfermedad, como sentarse humana lado de saalud.
A level of strict invariance was not fulfilled and the progressive procedure of evaluations of the IF was stopped. Results show that Colombia has lower scores ppt erotophilia than Spain, which would indicate more negative attitudes sexualidad sexuality. Afterwards, intercepts equality indicator intercept equality was ppt and a strong level of sexualidad was salud. The fitting of the four models tested can be seen humana Table 4. A humana evaluation of the items reinforces the salud of their quality. sex tape of kardashian.